CAPITALIZATION DEFINITION: The capital letters are used in the following places.
The first word of every sentence starts with a capital letter. E.g.
It is very hot today
He saw a lion in the jungle.
Proper nouns always start with a capital letter. E.g. Dennis, Pakistan, Friday, Indus, Chitral, etc.
The first word of every line of the poetry starts with a capital letter. E.g
On either side of the river lie.
Ling fields of barley and rye.
The names of days, months and festivals starts with a captial letter. E.g.
We have a holiday on Sunday.
The spring starts in March.
We celerate Eid-ul-Fitre after Ramzan.
The first word of every quotation starts with a captial letter. E.g.
The teacher said, “The sun rises in the East”
She said, “Where were you last night?”
Words that show a title, a degree, or an office of honor start with a capital letter. e.g.
Sir Syed Ahmed Khan
The Prime Minister
Master of Science
The titles of books, poems,newspaper, plays start with a captial letter. E.g.
The Holy Quran, The Daffodils, The Dawan, The fairy Tale.
The pronoun of first-person singular ‘I’ is always written in capital letters. e.g.
You live in Quetta and I live in Swat.
He said that I could leave the room.
You, he and I should work hard
The nouns of pronouns referring to God starts with a captial letter.e.g
Allah, God His, Almighty
The names of languages and religions also start with a captial letter.e.g.
We learn English in the school.
My mother langrage is Pashto.
We are the follower of Islam.
Example / Excrcise/ Capitalization letters
Use capital letters in the following sentences.
he killed a snake.
Ans) He killed a snake.
the name of our teacher is mr.ali
Ans) The name of our teacher Mr. Ali.
i shall meet you on Friday
Ans) I shall meet you on Friday.
she said, “you are my friend”
Ans) She said, “You are my Friend”
he is the prime minister of our country.
Ans) He is the Prime Minister of our country.
the dawn is my favourite newspaper.
Ans) The Dawn is my favourite Newspaper.
Punctuation means the use of points, stops, or marks to divide one sentence from another or one part of a sentence from another.
The Following are the main marks of punctuation
Full stop (.):- The full stop is used:-
At the end of a sentence that makes a statement or command.e.g.
He went to school. Work hard.
The sun rises in the East. Always help the poor.
After and abbreviation
He is an M.A. (Master of Arts)
Dr.Khaliq is not present. (Doctor)
2. Comma(,):- The comma is used:-
(i) To show short pauses in a sentence, as I need a pencil, an eraser, an inkportand a ruler.
(ii). To separate words and short phrases.
No, I was not there.
Amjad, come here.
(iii). To separate wored of explanation of commnad, as My borther, as I told you, is an engineer.
(iv). To mark off a quotatuion, as The teacher said, “Very well my students”.
3 Question Marks (?):-
The questio mark is used at the end of sentence that asrs a direct question, as Who are you?
4 exclamation Mark (!):-
The exclamation mark is used to show strong feelings like a surprise, fear happiness, the sorrow of excitement in a sentence, as
Aha! We have suceeded.
Alas! I have lost my book.
Stop! Don’t move ahead.
5 Apostrophe (‘):-
The apostropheis used:-
(i). To show belonging or relationship.
This is Ali’s house.
Hashim’s brother is not here.
(ii). To show letters missed out in shortended words as.
Don’t waste your time.
He won’t come here.
6. Semicolon (;)
The semicolon is used to connect statements when no conjunction ( like and, but, for, etc.) is used. It is a little stronger than a common but cannot work as a full stop,.
He got tried; he must have worked all the day.
They went to Bazar; bought new books; remained their till sunset and then come back.
7. Colon (:)
The colon shows a pause longer than a semicolon but shorter than a full stop.
It is used:-
(i). To introduce a quotation
He said with force: “We will all succeed”.
(ii). Before an appended remark, as
He is very intelligent: such students are hard to find.
(iii). To introduce a list or examples; as we need these things: chairs, tables, cupboards, fens, etc.
Inverted commas (‘’”):-
The inveted commas are used:-
(i). To mark a direct speed; as, He said, “I have done my job”.
(ii). To mark the names of the books; as,
“Bange-Dara” is one of the greater book of Allama Iqbal.
The hyphen is used:-
(i). to join the parts of a compounds word as Brother-in-law, passer-by
(ii). To break a word into syllables; as, No-vom-ber, hope-less, fruit-ful.
The dash is longer line than the hyphen. It is used:
(i). To make the meaning more forceful;as
I can’t say who disturbed me_ Ahmer Rehan or saleem.
(ii). To show the sudden change in a sentence;as
I wish I could come earlier_ but who could foretell life.